Somewhere far in the web’s primordial past it was decided that the best way to mark up a menu in HTML was to use the unordered list element:
<ul>. The vast majority of tutorials – if not all – you’ll ever see for creating navigation menus use the familiar list element structure, nesting links inside
<li> tags. Menu plugins for WordPress and other popular publishing systems use lists for menus as well. Even the HTML5 spec uses an unordered list in its
<nav> element examples.
There is, as CSS-Tricks’ Chris Coyier writes, “no debate” about how menus should be marked up. But HTML5 adds the
<nav> element and there’s also a
navigation role in WAI-ARIA so should we still be using lists to mark up menus?
Coyier says no. He’s dropped lists from his
<nav> elements and instead uses just links and span tags. Coyier cites a talk by Reinhard Stebner, who is blind, and suggests that with most screen readers the far better solution for menus is to use divs and spans for menus.
Be sure to read through Coyier’s post for some more data on why ditching the list might be a good idea andcheck out Jim Doran’s write up on Stebner’s original talk, which makes a distinction between accessibleand usable. That is, a technically “accessible” site might still be a usability nightmare for some users.
However, as Mozilla’s Chris Heilmann points out in the comments of Coyier’s post, the problems lists cause in some screen readers are really a result of the sorry state of screen readers. “Screen readers are damn slow to update and vary immensely between different versions… I gave up a long time ago calling something accessible or not when it works in Jaws.”
Lists for menus have advantages over the div and span route, like some extra elements for styling and the fact that they render as, well, lists even in the absence of CSS.
What do you think? Are lists for menus a legacy workaround we no longer need in the day and age of
role="navigation"? Or do they still offer enough advantages to keep using for menus?
For his part Coyier says he’s going to keep building list-free menus. “Until I see some solid research that suggests that’s dumb, I’m sticking to it,” he writes. “As always, the best would be to get more information from real screen reader users like Reinhard.”